Referring to sources


👉 See also Reporting verbs

When you include a source in your essay, you can refer to it by using:

  1. according to
  2. a verb, such as argue or conclude
  3. a noun, such as argument or conclusion


According to Bramson (1981), the objective of this strategy is ‘to see others as truly separate from yourself’ (p. 169).

Conrad (2000) argues that grammar teaching will be affected in three major ways by the expansion of Corpus Linguistics.

Furthermore, previous studies tend to concur with Tolley’s conclusion that ‘for the most part children reflect contemporary public opinion’ (1973, p. 136).


According to Huntingtonʼs analysis, in the course of overall modernization eventually government stability depends on urban support as urban-rural political power changes.
Goodeʼs argument has been challenged by a series of historical studies demonstrating that nuclear families prevailed long before industrialization in Western Europe
As for Rayʼs assertion that acid rain releases plant nutrients and is thus beneficial to forests, this is a sterling example of twisting the truth.
This result is consistent with Eriksonʼs belief that generativity extends beyond parenting and is not synonymous with it.
Smithʼs (1979) review of the research on gender and fear among children supports Ortonʼs conclusion.
The focus of the study to be reported here draws on Batesonʼs contention that embedded in context lies the meaning of experience.
Cooperʼs definition is short, succinct, and to the point.
Currinʼs description of the school librarian (1939) could be interpreted as one who is flexible, wise and a social genius, not unlike expectations for todayʼs teacher-librarian.
In Dawsonʼs discussion of the dialectal ‘a’ in Shakespeareʼs plays and Addition IIc, his counts are inconsistent, his calculation to little purpose, and his interpretation mistaken.
But Greeneʼs emphasis was almost entirely on the scientific results of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and their diffusion.
Qatarʼs indigenous population in 1975 should have totaled some 56,000, about 4,300 fewer than Birks and Sinclairʼs estimate.
Land reform is also part of the context for Gillian Hartʼs examination of the discourses, practices, and contradictions of hegemonic neoliberal capitalism in contemporary South Africa (2002).
The gesture of reconciliation represented by the Japanese overture for re-establishing a diplomatic relationship with Korea has occurred, according to Toegyeʼs explanation, after a series of causative events.
Eqbal Ahmadʼs exploration of Islamic political culture helps us to understand these developments by identifying an ‘activist and insurrectionary’ strain in Islam.
In contrast to Lannon and McKinnonʼs findings, Tucker discovered e-books in the business subject areas received lower usage compared to other subject areas.
Similar to Chang and Hannafinʼs focus on collaborative learning technologies, the final three articles in this special issue focus on the effects of technology transcience on particular technologies.
Galbraithʼs observation that capital demands increasing consumption as production levels rise is now even more salient.
Only four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in Mehrolzʼs review and results were not focused on specific mobility outcomes defined in the scope of the present review.
In Paul Taylorʼs study of Mexican labour in southern California during this period, his interviews with growers and workers initially indicated a general satisfaction.
Following Karstenʼs suggestion, we divided our 11 features into external features (situation) and internal features (site).
Hongʼs survey found that Qingqi suffered the most serious loss of houses torn down by the military or destroyed by the August 23rd shelling among all the villages on Lieyu.
Kathleen Fitzpatrickʼs work (2011), for example, helps us understand the ways in which digital text separates the author from the text in a way in which print media did not.