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Learning resources from INTO UEA

Referring to sources

Referring to sources
Manchester University Academic Phrasebank

Reporting verbs for introducing authors
University of New England

Synthesising: linking words and reporting verbs
University of Sheffield

Verbs for Referring to Sources
University of Toronto

Chapter

Using verbs of reference
Academic Writing : A Handbook for International Students
by Stephen Bailey. 5th edn. (2017)

add
Moreover, Marcia (1989) added that the processes of exploration and commitment are best promoted in a secure environment.
address
Elsewhere Hobbs (1998) addressed the ecology and economy of Sinai opium production, paying particular attention to plant ecology and microhabitats.
agree
As noted in the review of literature, Sundberg (1979) agreed with Seashore (1938) that the musical ear is extremely generous.
analyse
Nelson (2000) analysed 469 Halloween costumes and classified a mere 8.7% as gender neutral.
argue
As Lewis and Westlund (2014) argued, "The big-data phenomenon raises many relevant questions for news media."
ask
Noland (1989) asked participants to keep written records of their exercise behaviour.
assert
Porter and Claas (1995) assert that pollution abatement is accompanied by improvement in production efficiency.
believe
Sobel (1996) believes that children’s empathy with the natural world is critical.
call
This is what Kane (1992) calls an argument-based approach to validity.
cite
Glusman and Kepner (1988) cited a 1988 survey that indicated that over 60 percent of joint ventures fail.
claim
The concept of experience is, as Oakeshott (1933) claimed, one of the most difficult words in the philosophical vocabulary.
compare
The study by Carr (2001) compared and contrasted the perceived placement learning opportunities offered by hospital and community-based placements.
conclude
In another work, Ehri (2000) concluded that learning to read and learning to spell are closely related.
conduct
This is reinforced by research conducted by Hartman (2005) and Hogan and Mallot (2005).
consider
Merrick (1997) considered the decline in abundance of forage fish a possible factor in the decline of apex predators in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea.
contend
Majid (2014) contended that using this combined method captures the interest of students.
define
Blockstein (2002) defines credibility as "capable of being believed."
Nonetheless, the role for monetary policy is limited in that it must be passive, as defined by Leeper (1991).
demonstrate
However, Pearlin and Schooler (1978) demonstrated that avoidant coping can be adaptive.
describe
Furthermore, Baake (2003) describes how this resonance may vary for people of different backgrounds and social situations.
Seed protein contents were measured by the method described by Jackson (1962).
develop
This line of argument is further developed by Bartel (2004).
discover
In addition, Salameh (2011) discovered that students who opted to study English literature in the Hashemite University conceptualize English as a perfect global language to be learnt.
discuss
Cochran-Smith (1991) discusses two approaches to preparing teachers to "teach against the grain."
However, previous studies discussed by Shane (1990) suggest that an adult bottlenose dolphin may consume between 4% and 6% of their body mass daily.
do
Early work on how sports are typed in regard to gender was done by Metheny (1965).
emphasize
Kasperson (1992) emphasized the need for similar studies to clarify the effects of social amplification.
estimate
Armstrong (1991) estimated that the number of women getting tattooed has quadrupled over the past 40 years.
examine
Newell, MacFarlane, Lusht, and Bulloch (1993) examined the real estate market in Sydney, Australia.
explain
Collier (1995) explains that second-language acquisition is a complex phenomenon and a lifelong developmental process.
explore
Abdullah (1985) explored the effects of work-family conflict on professional Malaysian women.
find
Brown and Medoff (1989) found that larger employers, on average, pay higher salaries.
It is entirely possible that the more commonly measured frontal electrodes would have revealed such a difference, as found by Saarela (2000).
focus
Olsen (1970) focused on African Americans who had identified themselves as members of an ethnic minority versus those who did not.
highlight
Freeman and Johnson (1998) highlighted the central role of the teacher in language teacher education.
identify
Ridley-Duff and Bull (2011) identified two types of social enterprises: non-profit and forprofit.
The second objective of the study was to examine the relationship between reaction times and the six major primary abilities originally identified by Thurstone (1938).
include
Similarly, Feuerstein (1992) included a rating scale ranging from 0 (difficult) to 100 (easy) to indicate the perceived difficulty of the listening situation by the listener.
indicate
Data from the NCES (2013) indicate that lower socio-economic students are at a higher risk of being bullied.
introduce
The concept of relative deprivation was introduced by Stouffer (1949) in his studies on The American Soldier.
investigate
Furthermore, Li and Zhu (2003) investigated the damage in the intestinal epithelial cell membrane as a result of heat stress in mice and reached the same conclusion.
maintain
As Weiss (1979) maintains, children in single-parent homes must "grow up a little faster”.
make
Palmer’s paper (1988b) then expanded on the argument made by Symons (1979).
mention
For example, Wiggins (1984) mentions a series of studies into mental practice carried out by physical educator William Anderson in 1897-1898.
note
Fischer and Turner (1970) noted that there are essentially four factors affecting help-seeking behaviours.
As noted by Hutchinson (1996), SEM data provide clinicians with a level of confidence around any individual obtained score.
observe
Casagrande (1981, pp.260-61) observes that across Ecuador similar opinions are held.
outline
The concept of generalized symbolic mediators was introduced by Parsons (1963), and its significance for anthropology has been outlined by Turner (1968).
point
However, Martin (2004) pointed out the need for more research on many of these alternative approaches.
present
Greene (1992) presents a careful and the most recent analysis of this issue.
A more modest estimate of the carbon debt is presented by Raina (2002).
propose
Claiborne and Vandenburgh (2001) proposed a new role for social workers in disease management.
The model proposed by Horowitz (1992) showed that the listing price has to balance two opposite and competing effects on the expected outcome.
provide
Similarly, Grasha (1994) provides a conceptual framework of various teaching styles.
A thorough review of the history of conch mariculture was provided by Creswell (1994).
put
The Badu tribal sensibility, as Caton (1990, p.41) puts it, "does not separate aesthetic expression from the practical realm of life."
recognize
Additionally, Moritz and Watson (1998) recognized that until recently the Kenny and La Voie’s (1985) procedures have only been used in bivariate relationships.
recommend
Walsh and Buckley (1994) recommended addressing the social stigma of homelessness through developmental counselling.
The current investigation utilized an inductive approach to data analysis recommended by Hatch (2002).
refer
Roberts and Styron (2009) referred to this as "psychological comfort" (p.3).
report
Misra and Singh (2002) reported that animals watered once in day, had lower feed intake.
These figures are slightly below the 36% reported by Snyderman (1991)
review
Previously, Reis, Neu, and McGuire (1997) reviewed research on students with learning disabilities who were also gifted.
This model has been reviewed and refined by Engelson (1989) and has been widely used.
say
Students learn important research and writing skills, and as Carter (1991) says, the results are "nothing short of electric" (p. 292).
see
Bunzl (2005) sees the "the new anti-Semitism" in Europe as comparatively less pressing than Islamophobia.
show
On another level, Grossen and Kelly (1992) showed that direct instruction is an effective method in a Third-World context.
state
As O‘Neil, Fisher and Rietschel (2014) stated, "The online learning environment is accessible anytime and anywhere."
stress
Reinbot, Duda, and Ntoumanis (2004) stressed the importance of the social environment of an athletic team.
study
Shachar (2012) studied the role of dealers in providing liquidity.
The lack of correspondence between children’s and parents’ attitudes in the present study was also found in a sample of 89 school-age children studied by Malkus (1992).
suggest
Karsten (2007) suggests that housing quality is composed of two major components: site and situation.
As suggested by Warnier (1993), the king himself is considered a "container of vital substances" indispensable for the well-being of the village.
support
Hyman, Zelikoff and Clarke (1988) supported this hypothesis by postulating that adolescents exposed to violence may have lower self-esteem.
This recommendation is supported by White (2006) and Cruz-Jansen (1999)
survey
In a recent study using this method, Madaus, Banerjee, and Hamblet (2010) surveyed disability services offices at 183 higher education institutions.
use
Benner (1984) used this model in her study of expert nurses.
Similar conceptual frameworks have been used by Anshel (1996), Anshel et al. (1997), Holahan, Moos, and Schaefer (1996), and Tobin, Holroyd, Reynolds, and Wigal (1989).
write
The musicologist Van der Merwe (1992) wrote, "From infancy Africans are trained to hear the six-pulse unit as interchangeably 3 + 3 and 2 + 2 + 2, beginning with the lullabies they hear from their mothers."

analysis
According to Huntingtonʼs analysis, in the course of overall modernization eventually government stability depends on urban support as urban-rural political power changes.
argument
Goodeʼs argument has been challenged by a series of historical studies demonstrating that nuclear families prevailed long before industrialization in Western Europe
assertion
As for Rayʼs assertion that acid rain releases plant nutrients and is thus beneficial to forests, this is a sterling example of twisting the truth.
belief
This result is consistent with Eriksonʼs belief that generativity extends beyond parenting and is not synonymous with it.
conclusion
Smithʼs (1979) review of the research on gender and fear among children supports Ortonʼs conclusion.
contention
The focus of the study to be reported here draws on Batesonʼs contention that embedded in context lies the meaning of experience.
definition
Cooperʼs definition is short, succinct, and to the point.
description
Currinʼs description of the school librarian (1939) could be interpreted as one who is flexible, wise and a social genius, not unlike expectations for todayʼs teacher-librarian.
discussion
In Dawsonʼs discussion of the dialectal "a" in Shakespeareʼs plays and Addition IIc, his counts are inconsistent, his calculation to little purpose, and his interpretation mistaken.
emphasis
But Greeneʼs emphasis was almost entirely on the scientific results of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and their diffusion.
estimate
Qatarʼs indigenous population in 1975 should have totaled some 56,000, about 4,300 fewer than Birks and Sinclairʼs estimate.
examination
Land reform is also part of the context for Gillian Hartʼs examination of the discourses, practices, and contradictions of hegemonic neoliberal capitalism in contemporary South Africa (2002).
explanation
The gesture of reconciliation represented by the Japanese overture for re-establishing a diplomatic relationship with Korea has occurred, according to Toegyeʼs explanation, after a series of causative events.
exploration
Eqbal Ahmadʼs exploration of Islamic political culture helps us to understand these developments by identifying an "activist and insurrectionary" strain in Islam.
findings
In contrast to Lannon and McKinnonʼs findings, Tucker discovered e-books in the business subject areas received lower usage compared to other subject areas.
focus
Similar to Chang and Hannafinʼs focus on collaborative learning technologies, the final three articles in this special issue focus on the effects of technology transcience on particular technologies.
observation
Galbraithʼs observation that capital demands increasing consumption as production levels rise is now even more salient.
review
Only four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in Mehrolzʼs review and results were not focused on specific mobility outcomes defined in the scope of the present review.
study
In Paul Taylorʼs study of Mexican labour in southern California during this period, his interviews with growers and workers initially indicated a general satisfaction.
suggestion
Following Karstenʼs suggestion, we divided our 11 features into external features (situation) and internal features (site).
survey
Hongʼs survey found that Qingqi suffered the most serious loss of houses torn down by the military or destroyed by the August 23rd shelling among all the villages on Lieyu.
work
Kathleen Fitzpatrickʼs work (2011), for example, helps us understand the ways in which digital text separates the author from the text in a way in which print media did not.