Referring to authors


A lecturer will often refer to books, articles and reports by other scholars.

Verbs they could use include:

  • say
  • argue
  • suggest
  • describe


  • Indeed Hayek, if you’ll look closely, says that what we’re trying to do is create the opportunity for the unexpected to happen.
  • And what de Broglie said is well, if it’s true that light, which has a wavelength can have momentum, then it must also be true that matter, which has momentum, also has a wavelength.
  • John Brewer puts it very well when he says "the shopkeeper linked the market town and the local community to a network of markets ... "
  • ... and yet, as Mark Kishlansky says, "the constitutional position was that monarchical power was limited by the evolution of its practice."
  • Nozick said this is just way too radical.
  • Christopher Haigh argues that late medieval Catholic Christianity, to quote him, "was not only secure in early Tudor England but also luxuriant and energetic."
  • As a result, Marsh suggests they "held their peace," and as you know he uses that term in a double sense.
  • So what John Martin argued was that there was lots of nitrogen and phosphorus in these regions but there’s not enough iron for the phytoplanktons to actually utilize that.
  • And the key to why that was so is perhaps to be found in what the historian of the Spanish Inquisition, Henry Kamen, has described as a peculiarly horrible conjunction in European history.


Watch a short extract from this video (from 10m 30s to 11m 05s). How does the lecturer refer to such authors here?

  1. A reference to the first author:
    Burstein talks about this
  2. A reference to the second author:
    Lowi, whom we read earlier,
  3. A quotation from the second author:
    All established interest groups are conservative.
  4. A definition from the second author:
    he means conservative not in the sense of ...


The boundary between a social movement and an interest group, though - and Burstein talks about this - is a little blurrier, right? Lowi, whom we read earlier, has this italicized phrase, which is sort of interesting: All established interest groups are conservative. And he means conservative not in the sense of left/right, in the sense of less government/more government, but in the old-fashioned sense of less change/more change.