Author’s surname with year. Optional: page number.
Bailey (2008, p. 264) explains that a literature review can indicate a gap in the research.
In the poem Qian’s late husband is seen as ‘a free spirit who loved to drink, write poetry, spend money, and help others’ (Fong, 2008, p.24).
According to Mahajan (1992), decision makers are likely to be more critical of their abilities following negative feedback.
Both authors’ surnames with year. Optional: page number.
Exponential forecasting is suitable only for series with no trend or seasonal effect (Swift and Piff, 2010, p. 615).
Weir and Winslow (2012) compare the roof to ‘a giant warped tennis racket’ (p. 24).
Adamantiades and Kessides (2009, p. 5152) argue that it would be ‘premature’ to assume that there is no longer any opposition to nuclear power in Europe.
All three authors’ surnames with year. Optional: page number.
Chartrand, Millar and Wiltshire (2009, p. 188) define a contract as ‘a legally binding agreement or bargain; a promise or set of promises which the law will enforce.’
According to Sharma, Barrett and Jones (2011), an IWB can enrich a language lesson in several ways.
Projects fell into three categories: win, worry and woe (Sirkin, Keenan and Jackson, 2005).
First author’s surname followed by et al. with year. Optional: page number.
Brammer et al. (2002, p. 136) define a bad debt as ‘a debt owing to a business which it considers will never be paid.’
Synthesizing protein-rich cytoplasm is a metabolically expensive process (Reece et al., 2011, p. 803).
According to Jinek et al. (2012), there is a family of endonucleases that use dual-RNAs for site-specific DNA cleavage.
Organization name with year. Optional: page number.
A report (Amnesty International, 2010) blamed the Indonesian government for failing to protect the Ahmadiyya community in 2006.
Gross sales were £9.54 billion, an increase of 9.3% (John Lewis Partnership, 2013, p.4).
According to the Department for International Development (2013, p.30), 70% of humanitarian aid for Ethiopia comes in the form of food.
Chapter author’s surname with year. Optional: page number.
Motion recalled Larkin ‘leaning forward to stress the responsibilities that poets have to entertain their audience’ (Motion, 1982, p. 67).
Rea-Dickins and Germaine (2001) recommend a self-evaluation inventory for teachers.
In Japanese speech, according to Thompson (2001, p. 297), movement of the mouth tends to be minimized.
Author, no date
‘Hydrolysis is a reaction in which water is one of the reactants’ (Chalkbored, no date).
According to Chalkbored (no date), amino acids combine through a peptide bond.
Title with year. Optional: page number.
Africa’s population is predicted to reach 1.3 billion by the year 2020 (The Economist, 2012).
According to the definition in the OED Online (2013), globalization is ‘the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale.’
Letters a, b, etc. after the year.
The new Afghan government signed the Bilateral Security Agreement with the US and the Status of Forces Agreement with NATO (International Crisis Group, 2014a).
According to the International Crisis Group (2014b), the Pakistani military high command continues to support the insurgency in Afghanistan.
Primary source cited in secondary source.
The peacock’s tail may be another example of this (Zahavi, 1975, cited in Dawkins, 2003, p. 140).
See Secondary referencing for an explanation.