Cite your sources in two places:
- in your text, next to the information that you use (an in-text citation)
- in the reference list at the end of your assignment.
An in-text citation usually consists of the surnames of the authors with the year of publication and sometimes the page number.
In this example four different sources are cited:
The four sources also appear in the reference list at the end of the article, with all the details:
Chartrand, T. L. and Lakin, J. L. (2013) ‘The antecedents and consequences of human behavioral mimicry’, Annual Review of Psychology, 64(1), pp. 285-308. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143754.
Duckworth, A. L. (2016) Grit : the power of passion and perseverance. New York: Scribner.
Hobfoll, S. E. et al. (2018) ‘Conservation of resources in the organizational context : the reality of resources and their consequences’, Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5(1), pp.103-128. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104640.
Morgenroth, T., Ryan, M. K. and Peters, K. (2015) ‘The motivational theory of role modeling : how role models influence role aspirants’ goals’, Review of General Psychology, 19(4), pp. 465-483. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000059.
There are two ways of doing an in-text citation:
- put the author’s name in brackets (parentheses)
- use the author’s name as part of the sentence.
Author’s name in brackets
Use this type of citation when the information is more important than the source. Both the author’s name and the year go in brackets.
The focus here is on the rise of the far-right parties, not on Maronitis.
Author’s name in the sentence
Use this type of citation when the author is important for some reason—perhaps because of their opinion or their discoveries. Their name is included in the normal flow of text, e.g. as the subject of the sentence. The year goes in brackets.
Here we are interested in what Guilluy thinks.
See Referring to sources for the verbs and nouns you can use with this type of citation.
If you use information from a particular page in a long document (such as a book), include the page number in your in-text citation. This helps your readers find the original source.
Four or more authors
Use the first author’s name + et al. (= and others).
First author’s surname followed by et al. with year. Optional: page number.
First author et al. (Year) ...
Gao, X. et al. (2022) ‘A new Lactobacillus gasseri strain HMV18 inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria’, Food Science and Human Wellness, 11(2), pp. 247–254. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2021.11.010.
Author with ‘no date’
Author (no date) ...
Chalkbored (no date) Naming compounds with functional groups. Available at: https://chalkbored.com/lessons/chemistry-12/study-note-3-33.pdf (Accessed: 28 May 2021).
Title with year
Title (Year) ...
The Economist (2022) ‘Who’s who on the ocean blue’, 443(9292), pp. 75-76.
Same author, same year
Letters a, b, etc. after the year.
Author (Year + a/b/c etc.) ...
International Crisis Group (2014a) Afghanistan’s political transition. Available at: https://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-asia/afghanistan/260-afghanistan-s-political-transition.aspx (Accessed: 17 December 2014).
International Crisis Group (2014b) Resetting Pakistan’s relations with Afghanistan . Available at: https://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-asia/pakistan/262-resetting-pakistan-s-relations-with-afghanistan.aspx (Accessed: 17 December 2014).
👉 See also Secondary referencing
Author and year of primary source, cited in Author and year of secondary source
Secondary source details: Author (Year) ...
De Waal, M. (2020) ‘Close encounters: staging Julius Caesar, Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra in contemporary South Africa’, Shakespeare in Southern Africa, 33, pp. 4–14. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4314/sisa.v33i1.2.