access date
The date when you most recently looked at an online source, such as a web page or video. For example: (Accessed: 4 August 2022).
The person or organization responsible for creating the book, article, web page, video, etc. For example: William Shakespeare or University of East Anglia.
author-prominent citation
A type of in-text citation used when the author is important for some reason. Their name is included in the normal flow of text. The year goes in brackets. Sometimes called a narrative or integral citation. Example: “However, this claim is disputed by Watson (2013), who argues that...”
A list of all the sources (books, journal articles, etc.) that you have read for your essay, not just the sources that you have cited. Not usually necessary.
One of the parts into which a book is divided. Sometimes these are numbered (Chapter 1, Chapter 2, etc.) and sometimes they have titles. In an edited book the chapters are written by different people.
Digital Object Identifier = numbers and letters used to identify an online journal article, etc. Usually shown as a link. For example:
The version of a book, etc. that was printed at a particular time. Usually described by a number: Second edition, Third edition, etc. Abbreviated as: 2nd edn., 3rd edn.
editor (of a book)
Someone who prepares a book whose chapters have been written by different authors. Abbreviated as (ed.) or (eds), if there is more than one editor.
et al.
Et alii/aliae/alia (Latin) = and others. If there are four or more authors, use only the first author’s name and et al.
A referencing style with in-text citations (author’s names and years) and a reference list (sources listed alphabetically by author). Other referencing styles include APA, Chicago, MLA and OSCOLA.
information-prominent citation
A type of in-text citation used when the the information is more important than the source. Both the author’s name and the year go in brackets. Sometimes called a parenthetical or non-integral citation. Example: “The annual inflation rate exceeded 24% for the first time (Holmes, 2014).”
The first letter of someone’s given name. William Shakespeare’s initial is W. Many people have two or three initials.
in-text citation
A brief reference in your text to a source (book, journal article, etc.), giving the author and year and perhaps page number.
Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities, a referencing style for legal sources, such as cases, statutes and law books.
place of publication
The city or town where the book was published. For example: Abingdon; Oxford; San Francisco.
primary source
The original book, article, etc. which is cited in another, later document (the secondary source).
The company or organization that arranged for a book, etc. to be written, printed and sold. For example: Routledge; Macmillan Education; Pearson.
reference list
A list at the end of your essay of all the sources (books, journal articles, etc.) that you cited in the text, with full details for each source.
secondary referencing
Referencing a book, etc. that you have not read (the primary source) which is mentioned in another book, which you have read (the secondary source). See Secondary referencing.
secondary source
A book, article, etc. which cites an earlier document (the primary source).
Family name. In English-speaking countries it is the last name. William Shakespeare’s surname is Shakespeare.
The name of a book, journal, article, website, video, etc. For example: Academic writing: a handbook for international students.
Uniform resource locator: the address of a website or web page. For example:
Journals and magazines are often published in volumes and issues/numbers/parts. For example, National Geographic, Volume 222, Number 2.
year of publication
The year when a book, etc. was published or a web page was last updated.