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Learning resources from INTO UEA

abbreviations
  • edition → edn.
  • editor → ed.
  • editors → eds.
  • et alii ("and others") → et al.
  • page → p.
  • pages → pp.
access date
The date when you most recently looked at a web page, etc. For example:
  • (Accessed: 30 August 2012)
author
The person or organization responsible for creating the book, article, web page, etc. For example:
  • William Shakespeare
  • University of East Anglia

If an author is a person, the format of their name in a Harvard reference list is: surname, initials. Examples:

  • William Shakespeare → Shakespeare, W.
  • Lucy Maud Montgomery → Montgomery, L. M.
  • Stephen W. Hawking → Hawking, S. W.
  • J. K. Rowling → Rowling, J. K.
bibliography
A list of all the sources (books, journal articles, etc.) that you have read for your essay, not just the sources that you have cited.

Not usually necessary.

chapter
One of the parts into which a book is divided. Sometimes these are numbered (Chapter 1, Chapter 2, etc.), while sometimes they have titles.

In an edited book the chapters are written by different people. Use the author(s) of the relevant chapter in your reference.

DOI
Digital Object Identifier = numbers and letters used to identify an online journal article, etc.. Often follows: https://dx.doi.org/.

For example:

  • 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2011.02.003
  • 10.1177/0263276411423773
  • 10.1016/j.enpol.2009.07.052
  • 10.1126/science.1225829

Tip: Use the DOI if there is one.

edition
The version of a book, etc. that was printed at a particular time. Usually described by a number: First edition, Second edition, etc.

Use the abbreviation edn. For example:

  • 2nd edn.
  • 3rd edn.

If a book does not say which edition it is, just ignore this part of the reference.

et al.
Et alii (Latin) = and others.

For in-text citations, if there are four or more authors, use only the first author’s surname and et al. (in italics). For example:

  • Sharma et al. (2012)
initial
The first letter of someone’s given name. For example, William Shakespeare’s initial is W. Many people have two or three initials.
in-text citation
A brief reference in your text to a source (book, journal article, etc.), giving the author and year and perhaps page number.
page numbers
In-text citations: Include the page number if you use a direct quotation or information from a particular page of the source (especially a long work, such as a book).

Reference list: Include the page numbers of book chapters and journal articles.

Use the abbreviations p. for page and pp. for pages.

place of publication
The city or town where the book was published. Usually printed near the publisher’s name on the back of the title page of a book.
For example:
  • Abingdon
  • Oxford
  • San Francisco

In your reference the place of publication comes before the name of the publisher:

  • Abingdon: Routledge
  • Oxford: Macmillan Education
  • San Francisco: Pearson
primary source
The original book, article, etc. which is cited in another, later document (the secondary source).

For example:

  1. In his book Anatomy of Abuses (published in 1583), Philip Stubbes complains about the custom of morris dancing.
  2. Stubbes’ book is cited in A Dictionary of English Folklore, by Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud (published in 2000).
  3. Stubbes’ book is the primary source.
  4. Simpson and Roud’s book is the secondary source.
publisher
The company or organization that arranged for a book, etc. to be written, printed and sold.

For example:

  • Routledge
  • Macmillan Education
  • Pearson

In your reference the publisher’s name follows the place of publication:

  • Abingdon: Routledge
  • Oxford: Macmillan Education
  • San Francisco: Pearson
reference list
A list at the end of your essay of all the sources (books, journal articles, etc.) that you cited in the text, with full details for each source.
secondary referencing
Referencing a book, etc. that you have not read (the primary source) which is mentioned in another book, which you have read (the secondary source). See Secondary referencing.

In-text citation:

  • The peacock’s tail may be another example of this (Zahavi, 1975, cited in Dawkins, 2003, p. 140).

Reference list:

  • Dawkins, R. (2003) A devil’s chaplain: selected essays. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

You have read the book by Dawkins, but not the earlier article by Zahavi. Do not put Zahavi in your reference list.

secondary source
A book, article, etc. which cites an earlier document (the primary source).

For example:

  1. In his book Anatomy of Abuses (published in 1583), Philip Stubbes complains about the custom of morris dancing.
  2. Stubbes’ book is cited in A Dictionary of English Folklore, by Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud (published in 2000).
  3. Stubbes’ book is the primary source.
  4. Simpson and Roud’s book is the secondary source.
surname
Family name. In English-speaking countries it is the last name. In the name William Shakespeare, the surname is Shakespeare.
title
The name of a book, journal, article, website, etc. For example:
  • Academic writing: a handbook for international students
  • Journal Of Marketing Research
  • Nuclear power for sustainable development: current status and future prospects
URL
Uniform resource locator: the address of a web site or page. For example:
  • https://www.jstor.org/stable/25478421
  • https://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA21/006/2010/en/13a6a990-16f8-4fa5-8455-bdc6e7d45d6b/asa210062010en.pdf
  • https://econ.economicshelp.org/2007/09/economic-systems-free-market.html

If a URL is too long, use the site’s home page, so long as it can lead you to the actual page.

volume/issue/number/part
Journals and magazines are often published in volumes and issues/numbers/parts. For example, National Geographic is published monthly. There are two volumes a year and each volume is divided into six numbers:
  • Volume 222,  Number 2 - August 2012
  • Volume 222,  Number 3 - September 2012

Put the issue/number/part in brackets after the volume:

  • 222(2)
  • 222(3)

If there is no volume number and/or no issue number, use whatever information is available:

  • 30
  • (51)
  • (April)
web page/site
A web page is a document containing content such as text, images and videos. A web site is a set of related web pages, produced by an individual or an organization.

For example, the Economics Help web site (https://www.economicshelp.org/) includes a web page titled ‘Factors Affecting Demand’ (https://www.economicshelp.org/microessays/equilibrium/demand.html).

wiki
A wiki is a website that allows users to add and change its content via a web browser. For example:

Wikis are not always reliable sources, so you should be careful about using them in your essays.

year of publication
The year when a book, etc. was published or a web page was last updated.

If you cannot find the year, use (no date) in both the in-text citation and the reference list:

  • According to W3Schools (no date), the String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.
  • W3Schools (no date) ‘JavaScript String Object’, W3Schools Online Web Tutorials. Available at: https://www.w3schools.com/jsref/jsref_obj_string.asp (Accessed: 29 August 2012).