Law words

Some words used to talk about court cases, etc. They do not include many of the formal, technical terms found in legal documents. Click on a word to see the definition.

A

accused

A football player has appeared in court accused of breaking the jaw of a player on an opposing team with a single punch.

acquit

The Lusaka High Court has acquitted the former minister and his co-accused persons on all three counts of aggravated robbery.

Act of Parliament

The Digital Economy Act 2017 is an Act of Parliament addressing key issues relating to electronic communications services.

action

The judgment is a testament to the long and hard fought campaign by Unison, who brought the action.

adjourn

He asked magistrates to adjourn the case, which it was said would require two hours.

advocate

She is an advocate of the High Court of South Africa, and a legal and cultural anthropologist.

alibi

The girlfriend of one of the accused men provided an alibi for him in the Western Cape High Court on Monday.

allegation

He denied the allegation, dating back to between October 23, 1981 and October 22, 1982, at Swansea Crown Court.

amendment

The Romanian justice minister announced yesterday a series of amendments to the current justice laws.

annulment

India’s supreme court ruled that the annulment of the marriage should stand.

appeal

A police federation has criticised the judiciary after a murderer who launched a hammer attack on officers won an appeal against his sentence.

appear

Twelve men charged with offences relating to an aggravated burglary in Somerset are due to appear in court on Thursday.

application

The Maharashtra government filed an application before the Bombay High Court’s Chief Justice seeking that all matters pertaining to noise pollution rules be transferred to another bench.

arbitration

Employment attorneys say that 80 percent of tech companies compel their employees into arbitration.

arrest

An 18-year-old Denver man has been arrested after he left several clues to his involvement in a string of smash-and-grab burglaries.

assault

The Burlington man was charged with aggravated assault, assault with a weapon and breaking and entering

assets

The court hearing the case ordered a freeze on $3bn of assets held by the group.

attorney general

New Hampshire’s attorney general said the use of force by police was justified in the case of a man who was killed in a shootout.

authority

A third judge has ruled that Iowa Department of Transportation officers issued speeding tickets for years without the legal authority to do so.

B

bankrupt

However, he was declared bankrupt by a court in London in June after failing to pay a long-standing debt.

barrister

A legal profession divided into barristers and solicitors has contributed to the UK’s judiciary lagging in diversity.

beneficiary

In a report to the minister Linz said it took “all reasonable steps” to locate any living beneficiaries of Wilson’s estate.

bequest

Illinois Valley Community College announced the largest gift in its 93-year history, a bequest of more than $1 million from the estate of a longtime English instructor..

binding

The acceptance of an offer creates a binding contract between parties.

burglary

Police are investigating a burglary in Radstock where more than £500 cash was stolen.

bylaw

Two of Leamington’s four taxi companies have received extensions to comply with the municipality’s new bylaw.

C

case

The widower of a woman killed by a cyclist in a landmark case is pushing for new laws to tackle “irresponsible and reckless” riders

challenge

The widower and children of a teacher murdered by a student have lost their legal challenge against a coroner’s decision not to call pupils as witnesses at a forthcoming inquest.

chambers

He falsely claimed to have a law degree from the University of London and was listed on the website of a legitimate barristers’ chambers.

charge

The suspects face charges relating to a £2.5 million robbery of art and silver at the stately home.

circumstance

The Ministry of Justice said, in crown court, unless there are particular mitigating circumstances, a warrant will almost always be issued following non-appearance of the defendant.

civil

Unlike most countries where defamation is a civil crime, in Thailand it is a criminal offence.

claimant

The second change is that a claimant will not be found liable for the defender’s expenses, even where the case fails.

clause

The company sought declaratory relief from the High Court, arguing that clause 22 was void for uncertainty.

clerk

Dressed in a dark grey suit, he sat in the dock as the clerk read out the charge.

client

A solicitor who helped himself to client money while carrying out what he claimed was a “tidying-up” exercise of historic client account balances has been struck off by the Solicitors Disciplinary Tribunal.

common law

Ireland has a common law juridical culture but it also has a constitution in which the rights of the individual are strongly protected.

community order

The 49-year-old was made the subject of a community order when he appeared in Basingstoke Magistrates’ Court recently, requiring him to carry out 70 hours of unpaid work in the community.

compensation

The 18-year-old was fined £133, as well as being ordered to pay £219 compensation, £185 court costs and a £30 victim surcharge.

conciliation

The agreement was reached through voluntary conciliation among the parties under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and thus is private and not available for public review.

conditional

He had previously been remanded in custody awaiting his trial but was granted conditional bail at Worcester Crown Court on Wednesday.

conditions

Magistrates heard he had only been released from jail in April after serving 32 months for actual bodily harm and assault and being returned to prison after breaching licence conditions.

conduct

He said both of them were charged with disorderly conduct and violating the town’s noise law.

consent

There are other legal bases for processing personal data where consent is not required.

contempt

He was convicted of contempt of court for defying a judge’s order to stop profiling Hispanic drivers in traffic stops.

contract

Failing to pay this fee is a breach of contract and the car parking firm can take you to the small claims court to recover their losses.

convict

Four drivers a day are convicted of drug-driving offences, following the introduction of new laws in 2015.

counsel

He is the defence counsel for the Dera chief in four other criminal cases.

court

Thailand’s former prime minister may have fled the country after failing to appear in court to hear the verdict in her long-running trial.

crime

Victims of crime who do not speak English could be given priority by the Metropolitan Police, a senior officer has suggested.

criminal

Jurors in the longest criminal trial in UK history have told of their struggle to return to a normal life.

culpable

Kimberley Police are investigating a case of culpable homicide after a truck overturned 10km outside Kimberley at about 10am on Saturday.

custody

A lorry driver charged over a crash on the M1 motorway which killed eight people has been remanded in custody after appearing in court.

D

damages

The High Court has ordered a Katikati-based orchard canopy company to pay $718,262 in damages to a kiwifruit grower.

deed

When it comes to buying a house, the deed of sale is one of the most important documents a person can possess.

defence

Secret intelligence reports lodged by police to parole boards are being withheld from defence lawyers and their clients in parole hearings.

defendant

A trial date is looming for the last of four defendants charged in the murder-for-hire killings of a Delaware couple.

detain

In a press release, U.S. Customs and Border Protection says fourteen people were detained for overstaying their visas.

detention

A Palestinian court on Thursday extended the detention of six journalists by several days, a member of the Palestinian Journalists’ Syndicate told Al Jazeera.

deter

The judge said he hoped the punishments would deter other automotive industry engineers and executives from similar schemes to deceive regulators and consumers.

discharge

A Portland man has been handed a conditional discharge after drunkenly kicking a woman in the street.

discretion

Fines for the violation are set at the court’s discretion but could reach $500.

discrimination

Discrimination against disabled people is, in theory, banned in law, even if it’s depressingly common in practice.

dismiss

A Louisiana court has granted her motion to dismiss the case against her for lack of personal jurisdiction.

dispute

The company has received a demand to hand over evidence including text messages and emails relating to an acrimonious legal dispute.

dock

Representing himself in court, he delivered a largely incoherent rant from the dock as his closing speech.

duty

The court thus held that Louisiana servitude law supplies a duty to maintain the width of canals.

E

employment law

The Supreme Court will have to wrestle with important but difficult public policy questions about the type of worker that UK employment law is supposed to protect.

equity

In cases in which there was a conflict between the rules of law and equity, the rules of equity should prevail.

estate

We are often asked as trust and estate litigation attorneys for advice on how to avoid future family disputes with better estate planning.

evidence

The appellant argued that the evidence, which only came to light after the trial, showed that the complainer and another witness were “not credible and reliable”.

F

fair

But a judge ruled the video criticising his work was “fair use as a matter of law”.

family law

The guidance is aimed to be used by anyone involved in a family law court case including parents, older children and legal or social work professionals.

fee

A federal judge has ordered the Minnesota Department of Commerce to pay nearly $1 million in legal fees racked up by a windshield-repair company.

fine

Magistrates ordered him to pay a £126 fine, £135 costs and a £30 victim surcharge.

fraud

A former banking magnate and 50 others went on trial in Vietnam over a multi-million dollar fraud at a major private bank.

G

goods

The law states that goods and services are subject to value added tax at a standard rate of 5 per cent.

grant

A Muslim man convicted of blasphemy by a trial court was granted bail by the Supreme Court.

grounds

If an employee can prove that they have been treated unfairly they may have grounds to make a claim.

guilty

The former boyfriend of a woman found dead on a roadside embankment last month pleaded not guilty to first-degree murder.

H

hearing

Between the first hearing of the case and the likely appeals that would come after any initial decision, things are likely to proceed slowly.

human rights

The 2017 Conservative election manifesto states there will be a review of the UK’s future human rights legal framework when the process of leaving the EU concludes.

I

illegal

The police in the Dutch city of The Hague has seized 245 illegal media players in a store.

inheritance

The number of High Court cases brought under the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants) Act 1975 reached 158 in 2016, a 36 per cent increase on 2015.

injunction

Sheffield City Council has won a court battle to bring injunctions against protesters taking “unlawful direct action” to prevent trees being felled.

injury

The Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme, a government agency, has denied some children financial settlements.

inquest

The inquests of four people who died in the Grenfell Tower fire were opened at Westminster coroner’s court on Wednesday.

instruct

He believes the club paid too much – and has instructed lawyers to take a detailed look into the transfer.

intent

He pleaded guilty at Nottingham Crown Court today to possession of a bladed weapon and wounding with intent.

interpretation

UK courts ask the ECJ for guidance on the interpretation of EU law to help them decide a case pending before them.

investigation

A final determination of the manner of death is pending further investigation and results of toxicology tests.

issue

The judge did not decide on the sum to be awarded, as his ruling dealt only with the preliminary issue of the level of damages.

J

jail

On Tuesday (Aug 29), he was sentenced to three months’ jail.

judge

A man was jailed for contempt of court after he called the judge a “charlatan and a common criminal.”

judgment

The Sindh High Court (SHC) reserved its judgment on Monday on petitions challenging excessive tuition fee increases in private schools.

judicial

The judicial retirement age would be lifted in NSW from 72 to 75.

judiciary

Warsaw argues the reforms are designed to make the judiciary more effective.

jurisdiction

Theresa May has insisted the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice in the UK will come to an end with Brexit.

juror

Article I Section 22 of the Missouri Constitution holds that litigants have a right to trial by a fair and impartial jury of twelve qualified jurors.

jury

Over its course, the jury was reduced from the original 15 for a Scottish criminal trial to 12, the lowest number it can operate on.

justice

He was sentenced to three years in prison in May for his conviction on charges of conspiracy to obstruct justice.

L

lawful

Peaceful, lawful protest is respected by the City of Memphis.

lawyer

A man who posed as a lawyer has been found guilty of defrauding a woman with terminal cancer out of £92,000.

legal

A “wave of legal action” over climate change has already begun and cases will become more likely to succeed.

legislation

Netanyahu says the government will introduce new legislation to enforce the deportation of African migrants to third-party African countries.

lenient

The decision followed an application by the solicitor general, who argued that the original sentence had been unduly lenient.

liability

Currently, if there is a motor accident, liability will lie with the driver of the vehicle (be it rented or owned) if it can be proven that the driver was negligent.

liable

The minister of police should not be held liable for damages suffered by an Eastern Cape woman who was shot by her reservist boyfriend, because it was “a domestic setting”, the Constitutional Court heard on Tuesday.

litigant

As per the order, every litigant appearing before the court is expected to be dressed in a modest manner so as to maintain decorum.

litigation

“Public sector institutions should not enter into prolonged litigation and spend considerable sums of public money in cases which should have been adjusted by conciliatory and wise attitudes,” the Supreme Court has stated.

M

magistrate

He was jailed for seven days with magistrates saying he had shown a wilful and persistent breach of a court order.

manslaughter

A cyclist has been cleared of manslaughter after knocking down a woman on his bicycle in east London.

mediation

Mediation can also help people to avoid the stress, uncertainty and high legal costs associated with litigation.

misconduct

The bill provides for investigations into allegations of misconduct to be held in private.

murder

A 64-year-old woman who was arrested on suspicion of murder in Nuneaton has been released under investigation.

N

negligence

A railway official requesting anonymity said it appeared that negligence was the prima facie reason that led to the tragedy.

O

obligation

The county has a legal obligation to pay for public safety and rural fire protection.

offence

It is an offence for anyone to sell, buy for, or give tobacco products to underage youngsters.

offender

A serial offender has been jailed for ten weeks for damaging his ex-partner’s window, committing a theft, possessing drugs and for assaulting a police constable.

outcome

I am delighted with the outcome of this case, and I hope it sends a clear message to anyone considering providing unregulated immigration advice and services.

overturn

It was also hoped that the Supreme Court would overturn a long-standing decision of the Bombay High Court effectively insulating personal laws from constitutional scrutiny.

P

paralegal

A Toronto paralegal has been found guilty by the legal profession’s watchdog of defrauding clients of over $1 million and providing immigration services for which he was not licensed.

Parliament

Legislation is currently going through Finland’s parliament about intelligence gathering.

parole

A criminal who had been evading the police since jumping parole 25 years ago has been caught working as a security guard in west Delhi’s Vishnu Garden.

petition

A Muslim women’s rights activist has issued a petition to bankrupt the former MP, according to records at the Bankruptcy Court.

plea

He entered a plea of not guilty at the Capital Judicial Center in Augusta on a charge of murder.

precedent

No legal precedent has yet been set on a federal level that dictates whether a business can refuse service based on religious beliefs.

prison

Some 68,000 people were sent to prison last year – 71% for non-violent offences, almost half for sentences of less than six months.

probate

Delays in Ireland’s probate system are causing financial hardship for families of the deceased.

procedure

His execution was the first in Florida since the United States Supreme Court ruled its sentencing procedure was unconstitutional.

proceedings

he listened intently to the proceedings via a Polish interpreter as the charges were read out.

proof

The judge ordered him be held without bond on both counts of murder, finding that “the proof of guilt is evident and presumption is great,” based on the probable cause affidavit.

property

“China’s been engaged in the theft and forced transfer of U.S. technologies and intellectual property for years.”

prosecution

Tony Blair should not face prosecution for his role in the 2003 Iraq war, the high court has ruled.

R

reasonable

A magistrate isaid that a reasonable person would have been offended because the word was used in reference to the prime minister.

refer

The country’s constitutional court said on Tuesday that it would refer a case launched against QE to the European Court of Justice.

reform

The first Crofting Law Act was passed in 1886, and there have been several instances of subsequent legislative reform and other amendments made in the resulting years.

regulation

He had no such front wheel brake and could have been prosecuted for a breach of this regulation, a summary offence resulting in a fine.

rehabilitation

She was ordered to complete 30 days rehabilitation activity and told to pay £80 costs.

remand

Up to £230m has been spent “needlessly” holding people on remand in custody who eventually avoided jail, a penal reform charity has said.

reparation

Along with home detention, the two women were ordered to complete 175 hours of community work and pay $7000 in reparation.

represent

Today, Human Rights Watch released a report looking at how ICC decisions are made about which lawyers represent victims.

resolution

A dispute resolution mechanism is key to Brexit, since it would be needed both to police the “divorce deal” and to settle arguments that arise if Britain and the EU agree a comprehensive free trade agreement.

respondent

Umeiza, who is seeking N20 million compensation from the respondents, also wants the court to restrain the secret police from further arresting him over the allegations.

restitution

The Pennsylvania man who stole a painting of Muhammad Ali off the wall of the Muhammad Ali Center will spend 8 months in federal prison and was ordered to pay the center $5,000 in restitution.

review

A firm that specialises in managing PPI claims, is appealing against a court decision this summer that rebuffed its request for a judicial review against the Financial Conduct Authority.

rights

Public Legal Education provides people with awareness, knowledge and understanding of their rights and the rights of other citizens.

robbery

A man has been injured after being assaulted and tied up during a robbery in Scarva, County Down.

ruling

In May 2017, a groundbreaking court ruling put Taiwan on course to become the first place in Asia to legalize same-sex marriage.

S

section

Section 21 is the section in the Housing Act 1988 which sets out the rules for ‘no fault’ eviction for Assured Shorthold Tenancies (ASTs).

sentence

Prisoners are automatically released half way through their sentence if they are serving a fixed term, to serve the rest ‘on licence’.

solicitor

A trainee solicitor has been handed an 18-month suspended prison sentence after providing illegal immigration advice to clients.

statement

The jury heard he made a statement to the police on December 1, 2009, at Fraserburgh Police Station, after a review of the fatal fire had been ordered.

statutory

The department is doing an analysis of the need for a new statutory offence of perjury – currently it is a common law offence – and it is very difficult to prosecute insurance fraudsters who lie.

sue

A dying Tayside man is suing his former employer after claiming he was exposed to asbestos at work and became terminally ill as a result.

summons

A large group of travellers who pitched up in Hylands Park, Chelmsford have been issued with a court summons for trespassing offences.

suspect

They collected evidence from the abandoned truck and were able to identify a suspect.

suspended sentence

A Stourbridge man who threatened to burn a woman’s house down has been handed a suspended sentence.

T

terms

Car hire customers are falling foul of unexpected and unclear contract terms, according to new research.

theft

A man whose wife disappeared mysteriously at sea while the two were yachting in the Bahamas has been arrested in the theft of $100,000.

third party

In many common law jurisdictions commercial funding of litigation by third party litigation funders has been approved by the courts.

tort

In June, the city received a letter from the Las Vegas Police Chief’s attorney in which he informed officials he had filed a tort claim against the city.

transparent

Fair, humane, accountable and transparent justice systems are key to any society.

trespass

Residents who cleared decades’ worth of of rubbish from land have been sent a letter threatening legal action for trespass.

trial

The trial started in January 2014 and prosecutors have so far presented more than 230 witnesses.

tribunal

A former postman has received a £22,000 payout after an employment tribunal found he was unfairly and constructively dismissed.

U

unlawful

The Home Office has been urged to back down after a Scottish court ruled the decision to deport a Chinese accountancy graduate is unlawful.

uphold

The TES industry is expecting that the Constitutional Court will uphold the initial ruling.

V

verdict

It took just over an hour for the jury to come back with a guilty verdict.

victim

Women should get more compensation after being a victim of crime because they are more negatively affected by it, a study has suggested.

violation

After a careful review of the Arkansas Freedom of Information Act and the relevant law, it is the opinion of this office that a violation of the Freedom of Information Act has occurred.

W

warrant

A bill that will allow homes to be searched without a warrant was passed with overwhelming support by the United States Congress.

will

The Law Commission has published a Consultation Paper on reforming the law of wills.

witness

It’s a case that made national headlines when a couple’s pet parrot was the only witness to a murder.

writ

The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York issued a writ of execution in favor of the company against Venezuela.