## Introduction

A lecturer may say something again using different words in order to emphasize it or make it clearer.

Phrases could include:

- in other words
- another way of saying/to say/to put
- that is to say
- i.e.

## Examples

- So it’s going to be the y z nodal plane,
**or in other words**, we can say it’s any place where phi is equal to 90 degrees. **Another way to put it is**, at that wage the consumers there are pretty indifferent. So**in other words**, they’re willing to work but barely.**Or another way of saying that is**the K equilibrium is equal E to the minus delta G prime zero over RT.- So
**another way to say this is**this process actually requires energy. - It’s a matter of multilateral consent,
**that is to say**the agreement and support of all interested parties. - Cholera is clearly different from plague and smallpox in that it’s much more a social disease;
**that is to say**, a disease that has a clear predilection for poverty and for pathologies of social and economic life. - And superimposed on that is our burning of fossil fuels and land use changes,
**i.e.**cutting down trees increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. - Most of them actually came from clerical families or so-called ‘plebeian’ families,
**i.e.**non gentlemen, and frequently they were intending clerical careers. - Well, either circumstance, a bad harvest or a year of industrial slump, could produce a sudden and catastrophic decline in what economists refer to as people’s ‘exchange entitlements’ as consumers,
**or in plain English**, they were unable to afford the food that they needed.

## Exercise

Watch the video. In each clip which expressions does the lecturer use to restate information?

- In other words
- In other words
- another way to put it is … in other words (two expressions)
- in other words
- i.e. … Another way to say it is … that’s saying the same thing… That’s saying the same thing (three expressions, one used twice)
- that’s another way of saying
- i.e.
- Another way of saying that
- i.e.
- that is to say
- That is to say
- (alternatively) another way of saying it is

## Gap fill

- In other words, the whole field is trying to understand what the mechanisms are in populations that limit their growth.
- In other words, the actual growth rate of the population was decreasing as the number of humans increased.
- So basically, the point is – another way to put it is, at that wage the consumers there are pretty indifferent. So in other words, they’re willing to work but barely.
- So, in other words, the taxicab medallion is worth a certain amount of money. But that would be embedded in the money he would charge you.
- You can say that the steady state approximation is that the net formation of the intermediate equals zero – i.e. this is the net formation of the intermediate, so this entire equation equals zero. Another way to say it is that the rate of formation of the intermediate equals the rate of decay. So that’s saying the same thing, that this term is going to be equal to those two terms. That’s saying the same thing.
- What is little rate constant k 1 over rate constant k minus 1? Big k, right. So that’s another way of saying the equilibrium expression.
- Some people argue that that’s exactly what Clinton did in ’92. He took the Democratic Party to the right, i.e., towards the centre in order to pick up those central voters and win.
- So there’s more than just positions. Another way of saying that, stop me if this is wrong, but one way to say that is we’ve been assuming that politics is one dimensional, left/right and there might be other things involved: character or even among issues, even among political issues it could be more than one dimension.
- All I’m doing here is I’m saying look at this equation of the pink line, look at this equation of the blue line, X is when they cross, i.e., they are equal to each other.
- And then, having done that, I want to get back to astronomy; that is to say, to things in the sky that actually manifest these relativistic effects. So, that’s where we’re going today.
- Okay, so these units can be any units of length you like provided that – any units of length you like, provided the time units are related to it by c. That is to say, if your distance units are light-years, your time units have to be years.
- Or, alternatively, another way of saying it is, you use any units you like, and as long as you express the speed of light in those units.

## Transcript

**In other words**, the whole field is trying to understand what the mechanisms are in populations that limit their growth.**In other words**, the actual growth rate of the population was decreasing as the number of humans increased.- So basically, the point is –
**another way to put it is**, at that wage the consumers there are pretty indifferent. So**in other words**, they’re willing to work but barely. - So,
**in other words**, the taxicab medallion is worth a certain amount of money. But that would be embedded in the money he would charge you. - You can say that the steady state approximation is that the net formation of the intermediate equals zero –
**i.e.**this is the net formation of the intermediate, so this entire equation equals zero.**Another way to say it is**that the rate of formation of the intermediate equals the rate of decay. So**that’s saying the same thing**, that this term is going to be equal to those two terms.**That’s saying the same thing**. - What is little rate constant k 1 over rate constant k minus 1? Big k, right. So
**that’s another way of saying**the equilibrium expression. - Some people argue that that’s exactly what Clinton did in ’92. He took the Democratic Party to the right,
**i.e.**, towards the centre in order to pick up those central voters and win. - So there’s more than just positions.
**Another way of saying that**, stop me if this is wrong, but one way to say that is we’ve been assuming that politics is one dimensional, left/right and there might be other things involved: character or even among issues, even among political issues it could be more than one dimension. - All I’m doing here is I’m saying look at this equation of the pink line, look at this equation of the blue line, X is when they cross,
**i.e.**, they are equal to each other. - And then, having done that, I want to get back to astronomy;
**that is to say**, to things in the sky that actually manifest these relativistic effects. So, that’s where we’re going today. - Okay, so these units can be any units of length you like provided that – any units of length you like, provided the time units are related to it by c.
**That is to say**, if your distance units are light-years, your time units have to be years. - Or,
**alternatively, another way of saying it is**, you use any units you like, and as long as you express the speed of light in those units.

## Video sources

- Graham Walker, Julia Khodor, Michelle Mischke, and Penny Chisholm,
*Introductory Biology, Spring 2005*(Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), http://ocw.mit.edu (Accessed 20 May, 2013). Licence: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA - Jonathan Gruber,
*Principles of Microeconomics, Fall 2011*(Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), http://ocw.mit.edu (Accessed 20 May, 2013). Licence: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA - Catherine Drennan and Elizabeth Vogel Taylor,
*Principles of Chemical Science, Fall 2008*(Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), http://ocw.mit.edu (Accessed 20 May, 2013). Licence: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA - Ben Polak,
*Game Theory*(Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed May 20, 2013). Licence: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA. Terms of Use - Charles Bailyn,
*Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics*(Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed May 20, 2013). Licence: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA. Terms of Use