Academic verbs

300 verbs often found in academic writing

Word Example
access This population has difficulties in accessing appropriate, quality health care.
accord The weight accorded to each of these considerations depends on the specific project.
account After accounting for inflation, the DOD was spending $4 billion more dollars in 1983.
accumulate The more dollars the central bank accumulates, the larger this eventual loss will be.
achieve After almost 40 years, that goal has been achieved.
acquire The first set of words is usually acquired before the age of 3.
activate The data the hackers accessed should have activated a red flag within the system.
adapt Workers must often develop new skills and adapt to new working conditions.
address In reality, the court does not appear to have addressed this issue.
adhere The FSLP strategy adheres to the idea of multiple perspectives on learning.
adopt These delays cause airlines to shy away from adopting cockpit enhancements.
advance This tool can be used to advance or challenge certain political and social goals.
advocate Undeterred, he advocated a robust space programme.
affect College attendance is affected by tuition and cost.
aid Librarians help to guide students through school, aiding in their success.
align Two states will feel aligned against a stronger state that threatens them both.
alleviate The need to alleviate and eliminate poverty presents humanity with a challenge.
allocate Mice were randomly allocated to experimental groups.
alter Abnormally high sea temperatures can alter this pattern dramatically.
analyse Several studies analysed the same data with different regression models.
apply The tribe could not apply its zoning regulations to private non-member land.
appropriate Cultures borrowed and appropriated each others’ practices, beliefs, and objects.
argue Cochrane (2005), however, argues that this mechanism is irrelevant.
arise The dispute arose out of allegations of negligent repair work.
articulate The concept of a human right to health was first articulated in 1946.
ascertain The vulnerability of these forests to climate change is difficult to ascertain.
assert The economist Milton Friedman asserted that there was no such thing as a free lunch.
assess In addition, we assessed trends in mean number of cigarettes smoked per day.
assign Dante Alighieri assigns hoarders to the fourth circle of his Inferno.
associate These studies associate poor quality health care with larger issues of systemic racism.
assume For simplicity, we assume that insurers only offer full coverage insurance.
attain This ranking was the highest attained by any Anglophone country.
attempt This study attempts to fill a crucial gap in understanding the way students behave.
attribute Such disparities cannot simply be attributed to barriers in access to care.
base The standard deviation of inflation is based on data retrieved from Bloomberg.
broaden We can make a compelling case for broadening our definition of intelligence.
calculate The target harvest volume was initially calculated using the Hanzlik formula.
categorize 59% of the children were categorized as white, 12% as black and 20% as Hispanic.
centre Research attention has centred on investigating the aftermath of hurricanes.
characterize These schools were in neighbourhoods characterized by high mobility rates.
cite Estimates remained 100-fold higher than the 0.1% to 0.3% estimates cited in the report.
clarify As Plumwood clarifies, the word “communication” should be taken broadly.
classify Sub-categories used for classifying causes of deaths vary between countries.
coincide Washington’s interests have partly coincided with Iran’s in the recent past.
collaborate The FAO is collaborating with both developed and developing countries.
communicate Music can help children learn to talk and communicate.
compare The public sector, on average, pays less compared with the private sector.
compensate Fibre reinforcement is generally added to compensate for the weakness.
complement This method complements and strengthens other writing practices.
complicate The patient’s recovery was complicated by infection and graft failure.
compose The program was composed of 11 technical paper presentations and a discussion.
compound This problem is further compounded by people’s lack of understanding.
comprehend There are two ways in which humans comprehend risk.
comprise After attrition, the final sample comprised 70 children.
conceive He urged readers to conceive of poetry as “capable of higher uses”.
concern The case concerned a group of people who had been prevented from using the land.
conclude The authors concluded that the vast majority of immunizations are uncomplicated.
conduct In 1749 they used a kite to conduct the first weather experiment.
confer The Court accepted that the arbitrator had acted within the powers conferred on him.
confine Yet Beijing’s border problems are not confined to Hong Kong and Taiwan.
conform They followed the tribal code of honour, which did not conform to American values.
consist The final study population consisted of 304 Gulf War veterans.
consolidate Developing countries are consolidating their positions as capital exporters.
constitute Such species constitute an important subgroup of seed dispersers.
constrain Indian women are often constrained by mobility, with less than 12% able to drive.
construct An open canal was constructed to provide the town with drinking water.
contain Google employs a knowledge graph that contains millions of objects and relationships.
contradict This finding contradicts the data presented by Ruback and Menard (2001).
contrast However, this result contrasts with the result obtained by Bell and Cresswell (1984).
contribute Several factors contribute to music video’s centrality.
control Table 1 presents results from several regressions controlling for race.
convert Raw scores may be converted to standard scores and percentiles.
convey The purpose of the lecture is purely to convey information.
coordinate Banks often formed clearinghouses to coordinate the exchange of banknotes.
correspond A neglectful style of parenting corresponded with children’s poorest performance.
couple Unemployment gave rise to a sense of alienation and anger, coupled with boredom.
culminate Tensions ratcheted up, culminating in the February 1982 bombardment and massacre.
cultivate Plants were cultivated in soil-containing plant trays.
deem The family was deemed a “private sphere” into which the government did not enter.
define Children were defined as being under the age of 20 years.
demonstrate A recent study demonstrated that they efficiently promote anti-parasitic immunity.
denote The blue color denotes the similarity between samples, while red denotes disparity.
depend Agricultural households’ livelihoods depend on natural resources.
derive Oil derived from tar sands can have energy returns on investment as low as 3.
describe As described earlier, the struggle continued from 1979 until the 1991 settlement.
design The finding has considerable applications for designing disease control programmes.
designate ISIS has been designated as a terrorist organization by numerous countries.
detect Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures.
determine The purpose of this study was to determine job satisfaction in medical settings.
develop We also developed a questionnaire and interview protocols.
devise A search strategy was devised to retrieve relevant articles.
differ The statistics in Harris County differ somewhat from those in New York City.
differentiate It is important to differentiate tax avoidance from tax evasion.
diminish The importance of peer encouragement diminishes for female students over time.
discern This article seeks to discern the scenarios in which chemical weapons use is likely.
discriminate Flying bees discriminate between stationary and moving objects.
discuss As discussed above, the legislative history is somewhat less clear on this point.
displace The Pakistani army’s operation against the Taliban displaced over 3 million persons.
display Table 1 displays learners’ perceptions about the usefulness of learning English.
distinguish We also distinguished between 2 groups of youths exposed to smoking.
distort US newspapers consciously distort their reports of the Canadian health system.
distribute The benefits of a college education are not distributed equally across society.
document Several studies have documented that investors are subject to various biases.
dominate This period of economic turmoil allowed Chile to dominate worldwide sales.
effect The amendments effected meaningful, but not dramatic, clarifications to the law.
elaborate This idea was elaborated further by Lajos Mocsary, who published his thoughts in 1855.
elicit Firms would like to create products that elicit an immediate, strong market response.
embed The separation of church and state is embedded in the Constitution.
embody Rambo embodies heroic, militarized masculinity in his strength and fighting abilities.
emerge Several infections that have emerged during the past decade originated in animals.
emphasize Public health programmes often emphasize the health benefits of physical activity.
employ Women employ a range of strategies to deal with men’s infidelity.
empower Article III empowers the federal courts to hear only certain categories of disputes.
enable The evidence which is available does enable us, however, to draw some conclusions.
encompass The culture also encompasses the neighbouring Ngumba, Beti and Bulu culture groups.
encounter The analysts encountered many problems in the process of bridging this gap.
encourage We encourage additional research to evaluate these learning opportunities.
engage From the 1980s onwards more Kurdish women started to engage in politics.
enhance This study sought to enhance our understanding of stress constellations.
enrich The slave trade impoverished Africa and enriched America.
ensure Providing students with these strategies is essential to ensuring their success in college.
entail The most effective treatment of a disease usually entails eradication of its cause.
equate Students’ reading development is often equated with growth in cognitive strategies and skills.
erode This decision further eroded Native American sovereignty.
establish Research has established a direct relationship between substance use and crime.
estimate The total proposed bailout was estimated at 13 percent of GDP.
evaluate This survey is a useful instrument for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.
evidence Moderate physical activity may decrease obesity rates, as evidenced by this study.
evolve Feldman argues that Islamism is evolving in more peaceful and democratic directions.
exacerbate The situation was exacerbated by the turmoil of the years leading up to World War I.
examine There is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between SES and health.
exceed It was estimated that these costs exceeded 246 billion dollars for the year.
exclude Fund expenses and other costs are excluded from this research.
exemplify Tightening a bolt or a nut with a wrench exemplifies Coulomb friction.
exert All of these forces exert downward pressure on demand and thereby prices.
exhibit The civil wars in Angola, DRC, Liberia and Sierra Leone exhibited common patterns.
exist There exists a middle road between these two alternatives.
experience All three cities have experienced severe economic distress over the past decades.
exploit Terrorist organizations exploit social networking sites to spread ideologies.
explore This article explores the ethical issues raised, as well as the views of patients.
export Currently Israel and Cyprus do not export or import almost any power.
express Alaska Natives have expressed concern over reports of declining fish runs.
extend The results from the current study extend previous findings from clinical studies.
extract Data from all included articles were extracted by two reviewers.
facilitate The waterflea’s spread has been facilitated by the movement of ballast water in ships.
focus Most research is focused on investment products.
form Bulimia sufferers tend to avoid forming relationships.
formulate The court formulated two conditions that must be satisfied.
foster The institute’s core function is to foster collaboration among universities and businesses.
fulfil Hizbullah fighters perceive fighting in Syria as fulfilling a religious duty.
function A digital reconstruction shows that each building could have functioned as a dwelling.
generate Many sources reiterate the view that the act of writing generates ideas.
govern Terrorist tactics, in most cases, violated the rules that governed armed conflict.
ground These attitudes were grounded in the belief that standards of living were too low.
group The variables in Figure 1 can be grouped into three categories for analysis.
guide European reactions were guided by domestic political considerations.
highlight After highlighting key benefits, we explore various implementation approaches.
hinder Their deficiencies in the area of vocabulary hinder their future academic success.
hypothesize We hypothesized that 11 out of 60 students (18%) may have been misclassified as at risk.
identify Darity and Mason (1998) identified persistent discrimination in labour markets.
illustrate As Graph 3 illustrates, this import surge was dominated by consumer durables.
imply All this implies that the euro will remain the weak currency of a troubled Europe.
import Infected poultry were chicks and ducklings imported from Yunnan Province, China
improve Student outcomes failed to improve in response to reductions in pupil-teacher ratios.
include The original sample included 6,283 women.
incorporate Post-1994 land-reform policy incorporated these somewhat contradictory elements.
increase The size of China’s middle class is predicted to increase to 340 million by 2016,
incur The office reimbursed the school system for costs incurred by participants.
indicate 47% of respondents indicated they had experienced an adverse employment action.
induce Administration of ethanol to rats induced a taste preference for saccharin.
infer We are reluctant to infer too much from these conflicting results.
influence The Slow Food movement is heavily influenced by Mediterranean food culture.
inform We use boundaries to help organize space and to inform others of ownership.
inhabit The ruins were inhabited from roughly 3000 to 300 BCE.
initiate Ankara also initiated a diplomatic offensive and military campaign.
integrate Service learning is a strategy that integrates community service with instruction.
intensify Racial discrimination against blacks in America intensified after World War I.
interact For his robots to interact with humans, they first need to recognize a human face.
interpret There are different ways of interpreting the data.
invoke These groups invoked American values such as the right of self-defence.
involve In a study involving 14,804 students, 61.4% received poor mental health scores
isolate It resulted in the decision of the US and Israel to isolate a Hamas-led government.
justify This article concludes that the risk to human health justifies a change in policy.
label 66.9% of the students were labelled as economically disadvantaged.
lack However, evidence is lacking that these old British weapons were used in Yemen.
limit Our sample size limited our ability to conduct statistical comparisons.
link Agricultural development is intrinsically linked to deforestation.
locate Casinos located in rural areas outperformed those in and near New Orleans.
maintain Traditional maritime powers insisted on maintaining a three nautical mile limit.
mandate Current hours of service were mandated by federal law.
manifest Wise (2010) also provides varied examples of how racism manifests itself.
manipulate The government’s attempt to manipulate inflation expectations was ineffective.
map We mapped the network of connections between dealers and nondealers.
maximize They believe the only social responsibility of businesses is to maximize their profits.
measure In the private sector success can be measured in terms of profitability.
mediate Our relation-ship with the world is increasingly mediated by digital technologies.
migrate West Indians have been migrating to the United States for many decades.
minimize The university’s efforts to minimize the damage did little to appease critics.
mitigate Forests can mitigate the effects of climate change.
mobilize The officials utilized different types of social networking strategies to mobilize voters.
model We modelled the effect of a vaccine shortage to explore what might have happened.
modify Additionally, several sports may be modified for individuals with disabilities.
monitor Accordingly, educators should monitor the progress of students and inform parents.
motivate Patients need to be motivated to do what is asked of them.
multiply Policies to promote renewable energy have multiplied around the world in recent years,
neglect Until recently, scholars neglected this important part of her work.
note As noted by Tsamenyi et al. (2015), the IUU fishing term is broad.
observe We also observed a difference in clean fuel adoption by location.
obtain Importers can obtain foreign exchange indirectly from speculators in Hong Kong.
occur Parental abduction is most likely to occur during times of discord.
organize The human mind naturally organizes its knowledge of the world into categories.
orient Extraverts are oriented mostly toward the outer world.
originate The academic study of rumours originated during the Second World War.
outline These three studies share one deviation from the principles outlined in this paper.
participate Farmworkers at 62 camps were asked to participate in the study.
perceive Violence toward officials is perceived as more likely to occur in full-contact sports.
perform The analysis was performed using SAS statistical analysis software.
permit Consumer drug advertising is not permitted in most of the world.
perpetuate The legacy of historical racism continues to vilify people of darker colours, perpetuating white privilege.
persist That settlement pattern persisted throughout Chinese history.
posit Bandura (1977) posits that this belief is enhanced by successes of an individual.
possess These individuals do not possess the skills required to succeed in today’s job market.
precede The Treaty of New Echota was not the first Cherokee removal treaty. It was preceded by the Treaty of 1817.
preclude The cross-sectional design of our investigation precludes us from ascertaining causality.
predict Economic theory predicts that industry self-regulation will achieve fewer social benefits.
present The financial development and productivity correlation are presented in Figure 7.
probe When probed, the students said the teacher helped them to identify grammatical changes.
process Samples were frozen shortly after collection and processed later at the laboratory.
produce The remaining interventions produced small or negligible effects.
progress As the conflict progressed, the Egyptians continued to discover and destroy dozens of tunnels.
promote Promoting democracy and promoting development are thought of as separate goals.
propose A number of models have been proposed to explain this finding.
provide Better signalling is thought to provide a cognitive boost, particularly in older brains.
publish Specifically, studies published before 1970 were not reviewed.
range L* values represent lightness, ranging from black (0) to white (100).
recognize Nonetheless, the authors recognize that 530 operative cases may have been too few to capture rare events.
reconcile It is possible to reconcile individual data privacy with socially valuable uses.
reconstruct Most of what we know of the Mexican historical compilations is reconstructed from secondary materials.
redefine The Black Arts Movement redefined in positive terms what it meant to be black.
reduce The sample was drawn through random sampling to reduce bias and error.
refer The term haigui has come to refer to people born in China, who spend a few years abroad studying.
refine Further work could refine our broadbrush approach to create a more nuanced map of cultural subregions.
reflect Stock valuations, of course, partly reflect corporate earnings.
regard Its beaches remain widely regarded as spaces of social diversity and accessibility.
reinforce Classrooms need a culture that reinforces certain values, such as respect and fairness.
relate The results relating to autocratic behaviour should be viewed with caution.
rely Their algorithm relies on the assumption that the stratification variable follows a Pareto distribution.
render These dramatic changes have rendered existing Supreme Court case law largely obsolete.
replicate Nieuwland et al. were not able to replicate some of the key findings of the original study.
report No other significant effects were reported.
represent Native Americans represent less than one percent of the general population.
reproduce However, these results were not reproduced in two multicentre studies in cardiac surgery.
require Usually, a high level of certainty is required to have a diagnosis of DVT.
research The team carefully researched Muslim burial customs.
reside The legal basis of PESCO resides in articles 42(6) and 46 as well as Protocol 10 of the EU Treaty.
resolve Further investigations were essential to resolve this issue.
restrict Other authoritarian states emulate the Chinese model, restricting Internet access.
result This campaign resulted in a reduction in invasive Hib disease across all age groups.
retain The result is that small businesses owners retain control over their business.
reveal Our results revealed that the serum IL-28A levels were significantly higher in AS patients.
review McKenzie (1999) reviewed the available scientific evidence on infection rates.
revise More countries have decided to revise their cannabis policies.
seek These early migrants were seeking job opportunities and better lives for their families.
select The population for the study was a sample selected from secondary schools.
shape Their unique language and rituals may have played a key role in shaping the first cities.
situate The Assyrian city of Nineveh was situated on the banks of the Tigris River, near present-day Mosul in Iraq.
span The content portfolio of EBSCOhost spans almost all academic disciplines.
specify The 1974 Budget Act specifies certain procedures the Senate must follow.
state As previously stated, the bifurcation categories are mostly introduced for analysis purposes.
stem Female entrepreneurs face gender biases stemming specifically from inheritance laws.
stimulate It would have to rebuild the oil industry and stimulate growth in other economic sectors.
strengthen Peru used this period to build up reserves and strengthen its bargaining position.
stress Wal-Mart stresses that it has a policy expressly barring discrimination based on sex.
strive The nation must strive to provide education, health-care, sanitation and housing to every child.
structure Companies may structure their business operations to limit or avoid taxation.
subject The patients were also subjected to routine blood investigations and lipid profile.
suggest Emerging evidence suggests that cash transfers have an impact on several measures of food security.
summarize The demographic information was summarized in Table 1.
supplement Expert witnesses can supplement jurors’ knowledge of serious mental illnesses.
support These findings are supported by prior work done in Canada.
suppress Many conventional teachers try to suppress the students’ learning initiatives.
survey In our study, 2 million samples in eight calendar years were surveyed.
sustain Policymakers can generate and sustain political interest in improving arts education.
tend The seasonal peak in sales tends to occur before the onset of higher summer temperatures.
term We are living at the dawn of what has been termed as "the fourth paradigm of science”.
test Kwong and Varnhagen (2005) repeatedly tested 11 six-year old students and 34 adults.
transcend The celebration of mass was a communal activity that transcended socio-economic class lines.
transform This decade of growth transformed Russian society.
transmit However, South Asian music is predominantly orally transmitted.
underlie Many different conditions may underlie chronic pain.
undermine The government has repeatedly undermined efforts to abolish biological weapons.
underscore The scene in which a gang member shoots Jesse underscores the violence gay teens may face.
undertake A pilot study was undertaken by Satish Rastogi to diagnose essential needs among scheduled tribes.
validate The results were validated by three independent experiments.
value Anderson (2003b) described African Americans as valuing mutual aid and religion.
vary The justice organizations vary widely in service delivery, resources, missions, goals, and incentives.
verify To verify the data obtained from the CAGE analysis, we conducted qPCR analysis in cortical microglia.
view The reality of the Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon is generally viewed as inhuman.
warrant This study concluded that more research was warranted to characterize its extent and nature.
yield Data from the current experimental study yielded promising results.